Treaty of Sèvres

The Treaty of Sèvres was signed August 10th 1920 after fifteen months of negotiations between the Ottoman Empire, Sultan Mehmet VI, and the Allies solidifying the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire. A Tripartite Agreement was also signed at the same date by France, Great Britain and Italy confirming Britain's oil and commercial concessions and turning the former German enterprises in the Ottoman Empire over to a Tripartite corporation.

Kingdom of Hejaz
The Kingdom of Hejaz was granted international recognition. Estimated area of 100,000 square miles (260,000 km2), and population of about 750,000. The biggest cities were Holy Places, namely, Mecca, with a population of 80,000, and Medina, with a population of 40,000. It formerly constituted the vilayet of Hejaz, but during the war became an independent kingdom under British influence.

Democratic Republic of Armenia is recognized as an established state by the signed parties. It was given a large part of the region according to the border fixed by President of the United States of America which was referred as "Wilsonian Armenia"; including provinces which did not have significant Armenian populations remaining after the war, such as the Black Sea port city of Trabzon.

Ottoman Empire
The Allies were to control the Empire's finances. The financial control extended to the approval or supervision of the national budget, financial laws and regulations. The Ottoman Public Debt Administration of the Ottoman Public Debt was redesigned by including only British, French and Italians. The capitulations of the Ottoman Empire, abolished in the first year of the war by Talaat Pasha, were restored to prior to 1914. The control also extended to import and export duties.

France (Zone of influence)
France received Syria and neighbouring parts of Southeastern Anatolia, including Antep, Urfa and Mardin. Cilicia including Adana, Diyarbakır and large portions of East-Central Anatolia all the way up north to Sivas and Tokat were declared a zone of French influence.

Greece (Zone of Smyrna)
The occupation of Izmir established Greek administration on May 21, 1919. This was followed by the declaration of a protectorate on July 30, 1922. The Treaty transferred "the exercise of her rights of sovereignty to a local parliament" but leaving the region under Ottoman Empire. According to the provisions of the Treaty, Smyrna was to be administered by a local parliament and, if within five years time she asked to be incorporated to the Kingdom of Greece, the provision was made that the League of Nations would hold a plebiscite to decide on such matters. The treaty accepted the Greek administration of the Smyrna enclave, however its sovereignty remained, nominally, with the Sultan.

Thrace, up to the Chatalja line, islands of Imbros and Tenedos, and the islands of Marmara was ceded to Greece. The sea line of these islands declared international and left to administration of "Zone of Straits."

Zone of Straits
The Zone of Straits was planned to be established covering both the Bosporus and the Dardanelles. One of the most important points of treaty was the provision that the navigation was to be open in the Dardanelles in times of peace and war alike to all vessels of commerce and war, no matter under what flag, thus in effect leading to internationalization of the waters. It included not only the Straits proper but also the Bosporus and the Sea of Marmara.

British Mandate of Iraq
Oil concession in this region was given to the British-controlled Turkish Petroleum Company (TPC) which had held concessionary rights to the Mosul wilaya (province). With elimination of the Ottoman Empire with this treaty, British and Iraqi negotiators held acrimonious discussions over the new oil concession. The League of Nations vote on the disposition of Mosul, and the Iraqis feared that, without British support, Iraq would lose the area. In March 1925, the TPC renamed to the Iraq Petroleum Company (IPC), was granted a full and complete concession for a period of seventy-five years.

British Mandate for Palestine
The three principles of the British Balfour Declaration regarding Palestine were adopted in the Treaty of Sèvres:

"The High Contracting Parties agree to entrust, by application of the provisions of Article 22, the administration of Palestine, within such boundaries as may be determined by the Principal Allied Powers, to a Mandatory to be selected by the said Powers. The Mandatory will be responsible for putting into effect the declaration originally made on November 2, 1917, by the British Government, and adopted by the other Allied Powers, in favour of the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country."

Palestine officially fell under the British Mandate.

French Mandate of Lebanon
The mandate settled to France at the San Remo Conference. Comprising the region between the Euphrates river and the Syrian desert on the east, and the Mediterranean sea on the west, and extending from the Alma Dagh Mountains on the south to Egypt on the south; Area of territory about 60,000 square miles (160,000 km2) with a population of about 3,000,000. Lebanon and an enlarged Syria, which were later assigned again under League of Nations Mandate. The region was divided under the French into four governments as follows: Government of Aleppo from the Euphrates region to the Mediterranean; Great Lebanon extending from Tripoli to Palestine; Damascus, including Damascus, Hama, Hems, and the Hauran; and the country of Mount Arisarieh.

French Mandate of Syria
Faisal ibn Husayn, who had been proclaimed king of Syria by a Syrian national congress in Damascus in March 1920, was ejected by the French in July of the same year.

20.8.1920 Treaty of Sèvres, Partition of the Ottoman Empire
Str1977, Wikipedia, 2010    
On April 23, 1920, the Turkish Grand National Assembly gathered for the first time in Ankara, making Mustafa Kemal its first president and Ismet Inonü chief of the General Staff. The Turkish revolutionaries never accepted the treaty of Sèvres, which had to be revised. It was superseded by the Treaty of Lausanne, signed July 24, 1923.