The Ottoman Empire at the End of the 19th Century AD
Süleyman The Manificent 1520-1566 AD Ottoman Empire 1683 AD
The Ottoman Empire was in the hey-day of its power during the reign of Süleyman the Magnificent, revered by his people as Suleyman Kanuni or Muhteşem, the Lawgiver. The in fluence of the Sultan extended beyond his realms into Western Europe. He improved the organization of the state employing administrators and statesmen of unusual ability and promoting arts and architecture. Süleyman built strong fortresses to defend the places he took from the Christians and adorned the cities of the Islamic world with mosques, bridges, aqueducts, and other public works.He completed the task of transforming the previously Byzantine city of Constantinople into Istanbul, a worthy centre for a great Turkish and Islamic empire.
The Empire reached its largest expansion in the 17th century. Nevertheless, the conquests of the Ottomans were halted by the European rulers already in the second half of the 16th century. The siege of the Knights of St. John in Malta failed in 1565 AD. The Ottoman fleet was completely destroyed in the battle of Lepanto (Ναύπακτος) by a coalition of western princes in 1571 AD. The final blow was the failure of Kara Mustapha to take Vienna, 1683 AD.
The Greek uprising of 1821 AD ended with the defeat of the Ottoman fleet at navarino by a joined force of Russia, the United Kingdom, and France and the establishment of a Greek state on the Peloponese and southerm mainland Greece in 1832 AD.
1830 AD Algeria is occupied by France
1876 AD national bankruptcy of the Ottomans
The "Berliner Kongress" of 1878 AD constitutes the autonomous province of Eastern Rumelia
On the pretext of bringing order the United Kingdom occupies Egypt in 1882 AD. Egypt and the Sudan remained as Ottoman provinces de jure until 1914 AD. When the Ottoman Empire joined the Central Forces during the 1st World War Great Britain officially annexed these two provinces and Cyprus.
Eastern Rumelia is united with Bulgaria on September 6th, 1885 AD.
1894- 1896 Hamidian massacres in Armenia
1912 AD Lybia occupied by Italy