Hephthalites raid the Sassanian Empire as far west as modern Tehran.
Hephthalites suffer overwhelming defeat in Sassanian Persia.
Chinese embassy to Tokharestan/Gandhara finds no sign of Hephthalites.
Hephthalites revenge earlier loss to Sassanian Persians.
Hephthalites send their first embassy to the Wei court.
Firuz, former king of Sassanian, requests Hephthalite assistance.
Firuz regains Sassanian throne with help of Hephthalite armies.
Wars between the former allies resolved with Sassanian tribute in 475.
Hephthalites conquer Gandhara, set up a Tegin (a viceroy).
War between Tegin of Gandhara and Gupta Empire of India.
Hephthalites conquer Sogdiana, driving the Kidarites westwards, next conquering Khotan and Kashgar.
Gupta empire collapses. Tegin is overlord of North & Central India.
Firuz initiates new war against the Hephthalites and fails miserably.
Firuz' heir Kubad takes refuge with Hephthalites following a coup.
Kubad regains the throne with Hephthalite assistance.
Hephthalites extend power as far as Zungaria, then Turfan and Karashar.
Kubad deposed and escapes to a second refuge with the Hephthalites.
Hephthalites place Kubad on Sassanian throne a second time (dies 531).
Kubad makes war on the Hephthalites. Peace in 513 lasts.
Apex of Hephthalite power. Chief of the Juan-juan flees to the Hephthalites for protection.
Hephthalites dominate north and south of the Tien Shan range,
at least to Khotan in the east probably more, and up to Khurasan in the west.
A separate Hephthalite Empire controls much of India.
Forty countries (including the Sassanians) are in tribute.
Hephthalite centers are at Ghur, Balkh, Warwaliz (north of today's Kunduz near the source of the Oxus) and Hsi-mo-ta-lo. The entire empire probably comprises fifty to sixty thousand individuals.
Chosroes succeeds his father Kubad in Persia.
Revolts in India; Hephthalites lose most of East & Central India.
Fleeing ruler conquers the Kashmir for a short reign.
Turks overthrow Avars and begin petty conflicts with Hephthalites.
Turks and Chosroes ally to capture and divide Hephthalite empire.
Hephthalite rule overthrown in India.